Basically the modern Naga written history begins from Peren district, when the British felt the need to open up direct communication between Upper Assam and Manipur through Naga territories. In 1832 the first British explorers Captains Francis Jenkin and R.B. Pemberton with 700 soldiers and 800 coolies from Manipur in progress to Assam forced enter Naga country at Poilwa (Popolongmai)-Punglwa (Tiriamah)-Chumukedima (Samuguting), the party was met with heavy resistance at Popolongmai.
In January, 1833, Lieutenant Gurdon with Gumber Singh of Manipur Raja embarked on a second expedition from Imphal proceed and track to Peren (Biriemah)-Dhanseri river and to Assam.
Mr. Grange lead another expedition into the Naga Country through the same route in 1840 started from Assam through Dhanseri-Chumukedima-Punglwa–Poilwa -Yangkhulen and retreat from a point between Yangkhulen and Moheelong march back to Assam and on return burned down half of Poilwa as punitive actions for the resistance given to their advancement into the Naga country.
The first Administrative set up in Peren district was the establishment of a Political Assistant Office in 1958 then the district was known as Zeliang-Kuki Areas, later on a Circle Officer was posted at Peren in 1963, Assistant Commissioner-II was posted in 1965 and upgraded to SDO (Civil) Headquarter in 1966 and shifted to Jalukie. In 1973 the SDO (C) Office at Jalukie was shifted back to Peren and upgraded to Sub-Division with Shri. L.M Jamir as the first ADC (Independent charge) under Kohima District.
Peren was declared a full-fledged Revenue District on 24 January 2004, with Shri. Mikha Lomi as the first Deputy Commissioner, with a geographical area of 1799 Sq Kms and a population of 94,954 and a density population of 41 per sq Kms. There are 7 Administrative Hqrs, 4 (four) Rural Development Blocks, and 86 Villages and 21 settlements.
The District Headquarter was shifted to the present site on 2nd January 2015, by Shri. Peter Lichamo DC, Peren, with ten other HoDs and representatives on the first day of office at the New District Headquarter Peren.
Popularly, Peren District known as “the Green District of Nagaland,” with the highest concentration of Flora and Fauna (Forest both reserve and unreserved Belt) of all districts in Nagaland, lies at the extreme South-West of Nagaland, is 100 kms from the capital of Nagaland Kohima via (K-L Road) and 95 kms from Dimapur the Commercial hub and Gateway of Nagaland the only Railway head and Airport of Nagaland, daily Bus and Taxi Services are plying from Peren to Kohima and Dimapur.
Peren district the home of the Zeliang and Kuki Tribes. The languages spoken are the Zemi, Liangmai, Kuki and Rongmei, Nagamese along with English the official language of Nagaland. Though in the past they were headhunters, the people of Peren district were known for the best dance, music, arts and fineries, but of late for want of more economic development in the district the people are reeling under acute poverty and are now the most backward district in Nagaland.
The total Area of Peren District is 1799 Sq Kms with a density of 41 Per sq Kms. There are 7 Administrative Hqs, 86 recognized Villages and 21 settlements in Peren district with a population of 94,954 as per 2011 census. The district is bounded by Dimapur in the North, Kohima in the East, Manipur in the south and Assam in the West.
Peren District can be classified into three regions:
- The Barail Ranges (Hill sector)
- The Jalukie Valley (Plain Sector)
- The Intangki Forest (Reserved Forest)
The land is fertile for Agro base production and the people of Peren district are mainly agrarian (80%) by occupation and paddy is the livelihood of the populace, and Jalukie Valley known as the Rice Bowl of Nagaland. Besides paddy, of late the people have taken up crops like Pineapple, yam, beans, ginger, Banana, and other Horticulture products,which supplement the crops. The popular Naga King’s Chilies is a translation of the words Chaibe Rachi meaning Chaibe = King’s + Rachi = chilly, both the name and the Chilies originated from Peren district.
Recently farmers have taken up Cash crops cultivation like rubber, Tea, Turmeric, Medicinal Plants, and Orchard etc to enhance their income.
Interestingly, Peren is the only district where local people dominate and control commercial and business activities in Towns and villages. Many families have opted and engaged themselves in business as a means of their livelihood. The famous ‘Mid-Night Market at Jalukie Town’ where the commercial activities virtually begin from Mid-night is an outlet of the agriculture and horticulture products of the farmers.
The organic crops and vegetables which are grown in large areas and produce in large quantity are yet to be channelized for outside markets and lack of facilities like transports and cold storages are hampering and discouraging the poor marginal farmer for more productions in- spite of the vast potentiality in the district.
The important Festivals of the Zeliang and Kuki are Meleinyi/ Hega, (Zeliang) and Minkut (Kuki) is celebrated in February- March every year, where as Langsemnyi /Chaga Gadi are celebrated in the month of October.
Forefathers of the Zeliangs and Kuki Tribes of Peren district practice a Culture which is similar to that of Judaism if not for the oral traditions of handing down knowledge and customary practices to the younger generation, otherwise a theocratic society whose laws practices were rooted firmly on the belief of the invisible ‘Being’, who was the creator of the universe, to which the early Christian missionaries have term as Animisms. Today the both Zeliangs and Kukis are Christian in majority though some still practices the old cultures/religion called Bungtak.
Peren District has Tropical Type to sub tropical type to temperate types of climates moderate climate. In summer days are warm and nights are pleasant and in winter days are cool and night are chilled. The onset of Monsoon starts from the month of April and last till October. From November to March, the weather is mostly dry.