PHYSIOGRAPHY: Peren District is a strip of mountainous territory having fertile foothill valley plains in
North-West and North-East. It occupies the elongated South-Western end of Nagaland State.
LOCATION: Peren District is located between longitude 93°E - 94°E and latitude 25° N-26°N of the Equator.
DISTANCE OF HEADQUARTER: From State Capital = 139 K.M. via Kukidolong ,From Airport = 71 K.M. ,From Railhead, Dimapur = 77 K.M.
AREA: Peren District has a total area of 2300sq k.m.
LANGUAGES: Zeme, Liangmai, Kuki, Rongmai, English, Tenyidie, Nagamese and Hindi.
A view of
Peren(Benreu Village, home of Zeliang Naga)
BOUNDARY: Peren District is bounded by 2 (two) States and 2 (two) Districts. On the East and South it shares Nagaland’s Inter-State boundary with Manipur;
on the west also it shares Nagaland’s Inter-State boundary with Assam; and on the North and North-East it is bounded by two Districts of Nagaland - Dimapur
and Kohima, respectively.
ALTITUDE : The altitude of the District varies from 800 mts. to 2500 mts. above the sea level. Mt. Paona, the highest mountain peak in the district is 2500 mts.
high and Peren Town, the Headquarter is 1445.40 mts. above sea level.
RIVERS : The principle rivers and important rivulets that flows through Peren District includes Tepuiki, Mbeiki (Barak), Ntanki, Mungleu, Tesanki, Nguiki, Nkwareu, Techauki, Ngungreu,Tahaiki and Duilumreu (Tributary of Tepuiki).
POPULATION: The population of Peren District is entirely tribal. The original inhabitants of Peren District are people who originated from Nkuilwangdi, presently in Senapati District of Manipur. As per 2001 Census, the total population is 96,825 of which 50,001 are Male and 46,823 Female. Circle wise break up of population is :
Peren Sadar = 12,882, Ngwalwa Circle = 08,771, Jalukie Circle = 22,006, Ahthibung Circle = 13,481, Nsong Circle 07,441, and Tening Circle = 31,243.
LITERACY RATE: The Literacy rate of the District as per 2001 Census is 54%, of which 32% are Male and 22% are Female.
Villages Electrified : 66 villages.
Number of Major Towns : 3 (Peren Town, Tening Town , and Jalukie Town)
Number of Small Towns : 3 (Nsong Town, Ngwalwa Town and Athibung Town)
Number of Recognized Villages : 85
Number of Unrecognized Villages : 10 (Under process for recognition).
About three-fourth of the population are involved in agriculture. Rice is the staple food crop grown.
Peren District also has a unique land holding pattern in that almost
90% of the area is privately owned. There is no landless among the inhabitants of the District, as each Possess land, either his own, or inherited from his family, clan
or village. Although agriculture is the main-stay of the District, self-sufficiency in food-grain is yet to be achieved. Considering the hilly terrain of three-fourth of the area,
this is not unusual but the main drawback is that cultivation is vitiated by Jhumming. The only answer to this is to encourage terraced cultivation, contour bunding, farm forestry, orchard plantation and cash crop plantation so as to discourage Jhum cultivation which leads to soil erosion, loss of fertility, deforestation and low yield. The Government need to turn its sincere attention to the vast fertile plains of the District viz., Jalukje, Ahthibung,
Heninglcunglwa Ngwalwa, Gaili and Punglwa to practically translate these into the Rice
Bowl of Nagaland, besides industrial and horticulture prospects these areas holds.
Whereas the farmers in the North, Northeast and West foot hills and valleys depends on rivers like Nkwareu, Mungleu, Techauki, Ngungreu, Tahailci, Ntankj, Tesangki
etc, water source for paddy fields in the foot hills in the East and South originates from Doidieki (Dzuku).
Necessary facilities and infrastructure in the District is zero, but mineral wealth is immense, though unexplored as yet. For instance, Lalong village under Nsong Circle literally sits atop rich deposits of iron-ore.
Peren District takes pride in having I (one) Mini Hydro Project at Duilumreu, Poilwa.
Both the First as well as the Second phase has been commissioned. The District, however, is yet to directly benefit from its only
as power generated from this Project is being supplied to Kohima only.
The artistic sense of the inhabitants of the District indicates Promising future in Industry. However, the Government is yet to take serious notice of this Potentiality.
This remote hilly area covered with luxuriant vegetation and unique forests, cool and bracing climate, scenic beauty of the terrain, enchanting rivers and rivulets, presence of wide variety of wild animals and birds, birds-eye view
the neighboring Manipur and Assam, and the hospitable and likeable nature of the inhabitants indicates
promising future for tourism industry. Moreover, the rich cultural heritage of the Zeliangs including festivals and dances are added attractions. Places of tourism Potentiality includes historical places like the Mt. Kisa at Nzauna village situated at the southernmost end of the District and the caves at Puilwa village, about 25 km from the Peren Town which are closely associated with the name of Ranj Gaidinliu, the lofty and majestic Mt. Paona
- the highest mountain peak in the District at Benreu village with its rare and elusive
Blythe’s Tragopan (also found in the lofty ranges of Tesen) and unique plants and shrubs, and Ntanki National Park ( 20202 hac. and 37 k.m. from Dimapur) the home to Holloc Gibbon, a rare and an endangered species of monkey and with all its other charms.
Peren District enjoys Monsoon type of climate with the rest of the country. Owing to the elevation of the area and rich vegetation, Peren District enjoys salubrious climate - of temperate type. Winters are cold but pleasant and Summers are warm and tolerable.
The mean annual temperature in the hill sector ranges from 18° C to 26° C (Approximately) and in the valley sector, from 18°C to 35°C (Approximately).
The mean December and January temperature in the hill sector ranges from 2° - 4°C to 10°C to
15°C (Approximately) and in the valley sector from 10°C to
20°C (approximately). Frost occurs at selected places in the hill sector during December and January.
Precipitation Occurs mainly in the form of rainfall, of which time of
occurrence cannot be predicted. Anytime a sudden build-up of dark rain clouds may occur causing heavy downpour, which may last as brief as few minutes, or may last for hours together, or even days together. Hailstone occurs also during February to April at selected
places. The mean annual rainfall ranges from 1500mm to 3000 mm with an one average of about 2000 mm, approximately. The number of rainy days ranges from 95 - 108 days, mostly during the month of July to September, while the
time number of months with rainfall less than 50mm is for 3 to 5 months - December to April. Peren District receives the
Bay of Bengal Monsoon.
The soil type in the District is reddish-yellow type topped by a varying lues depth of black soil rich in humus. Whereas sandy soil occurs in Jalukie,
It iS Ahthibung and Telling Circles, most of the hill sectors are endowed with clay ipur soil.
Metamorphic Rocks, particularly quartzite is the most commonly found rock in the District.
Besides, sand stones are abundantly found in Tening Circle.
FLORA AND FAUNA
Peren District is rich in natural vegetation. It enjoys the distinction of being one of the few places in Nagaland where virgin forests are still found.
Sub-Tropical Mixed Forest characterized by broad-leafed evergreen trees and deciduous trees abounds. In an area of 50 square meters there occurs as much as 20 to 30 different varieties of trees. The main/dominating species in the high altitude are such as Bonsum, Gogra, Alder, Oak species and locally known Nzam, Ngui, Ncinlei, Ndia, Nkia bang, Telim, Teirekakchi ching, Hekeuchi ching, Henap ching, and Chinghei ching. Also occurs wild cherries and wild apples, wild lemon, wild banana, wild walnut, wild fig, varieties of edible plants 2° and leaves, and cane and reed at selected places. At the foothill, Gomari, Holloc, Koroi, Mesua, Tita-Chapa, Neem, Wild Mango, Amla and Bamboo species are the dominant species. Varities of shrubs,
herbs -many with medicinal values, climbers, ferns and grasses including the locally called Langtanhei, Heitik, Hemunchi, Muentikchi bang, Tonglalachi bang, Mbau,
Beiria, Tapohei, and Retim comprise the undergrowth. Parasatic plants, locally known as Nrembang, having the characteristics of banyan tree also occurs in patches. Of recent, plantation species such as Pine species, Eucalyptus, Teak, Gomari and Silver Oak has become a part of
the vegetation. The forest is also rich in orchid. Of the more than 100 species found, Blue Vanda, Red Vanda, Queen Neclace, Ladies Slippers and Tiger Orchid are the dominant ones.
Varieties of bamboo are found in patches throughout the District. There also occurs a rare species of bamboo - finger size and cane - like in structure
- believe to be the World’s tallest/longest bamboo in the foothills of Peletkie village along the margins of Tepuiki river and in the ranges of Tesen.
The verdant forest of the District is also home to variety of fauna - a paradise for animals and birds lovers and researchers. Dominant wild animals
includes Stag, Bear, Mithun, Sloth, Barking Deer, Mountain Deer, Wild Hog, the rare Pangolin, Elephant, varieties of Monkeys, varieties of wild cats, varieties of Porcupine, Flying Fox, Flying Squirrel, Himalayan Giant Squirrel and other different varieties of squirrels, Civet Cats, snakes, Python, Otter etc. The rivulets and rivers teem with different varieties of fishes and other water creatures, of which trout is rare species.
Dominant birds includes Hornbill, varieties of pigeons including royal pigeon, parrot, mama, mountain peacock, the rare and elusive
Blythe's Tragopan, varieties of jungle fowls, and other varieties of smaller birds.